Consequences of disorder of the Soviet Union
Recently 90 years to the person legend, last of Mohicans, the outstanding aircraft designer, twice the Hero of Socialist Work, the winner of the Lenin award Henry Novozhilov were executed.
Together with Sergey Ilyushin it lifted planes Il-18, Il-62 in the sky. Then under its management such planes, as Il-76, Il-86, Il-96-300, Il-114 were created.
And today, despite age, Henry Novozhilov continues to work in JSC S.V.Ilyyushina, using the best efforts, that the aviation status of Russia remained high not only in words.
The present condition of aviation branch of the country is an unceasing pain of the legendary aircraft designer. On the eve of the anniversary he shared it with the journalist of "MK", thus without having managed to answer a question: why planes of the Russian production are not become necessary to Russia?
Every time, meeting Henry Vasilyevich, I do not cease to be surprised, how he manages to keep not only a young-looking look, but still sharp mind and reliable memory. Communicating, he easily quotes books, calls tens names of people with which worked, exact dates of issue of planes … On my question as it is possible to it, he smiles:
– I have a motto: regularly read "MK" – you will remain young. I do not joke: in other newspapers as in yours, already there is no that sharpness which is peculiar to youth.
– In our conversation I too would like sharpnesses. You have on it the right. Therefore at once I will ask: for you it is not a pity, what to the next round date you have one more book of memoirs, instead of the new plane? Why Russia has no planes?
– We have planes.
– And where they?
– Where is already following question … For example, there was such Tu-334 plane. And where it now? And where Il-114, Tu-204, Tu-204СМ, Tu-214 … Let’s take Tu-204СМ which was under construction in Ulyanovsk. Quite decent plane. But for some reason anybody was not going to order it in us. But cargo Tu-204-120 with Rolls-Royce engines was bought by the Egyptian millionaire. These cars were used for delivery of mail of DHL, flied in Europe even at night as them considered as the most silent. It is asked: why they did not find for us application?
Or shirokofyuzelyazhny Il-96-300. There is it at us? Is. More precisely, was. Or Il-96Т which in passenger option can carry 420 people. More truly, could, if it would appear to someone it is necessary. There was skilled Il-96МО with the American engines Pratt&Whitney and the Rockwell Collins firm equipment. We worked nine years on it together with Americans, however, now about it not fashionably to remember. Received on it the certificate of the flight validity. In 1998 – Russian, in the 1999th – American. Though for this purpose it was necessary to make it cargo.
– At our CB did not suffice a silenok to create a new interior for passenger option. Now in Voronezh it alter under any special option.
– The special option is shtuchno, and where a mass production?
– I often hear: what it, say, for a mass production if let out on five planes in a year? But I so will tell: it is impossible to make any plane, without having started it in a mass production. It always preparation of equipment, building berths, the equipment – everything that allows to make the plane. The plant at first does the first stage of equipment. Then there can be the second, the third – everything depends on number of orders. But it means that the plant is ready to series release. Then a question in other: or something there are not enough orders, or in the production organization not so.
– What, for example?
– Today it is shortage of experts and skilled workers.
– And why experts if there are no orders?
– Everything is relative. I will not tell precisely, Il-96-300 how many is now ordered, but I know that all of them in special group. And here "Aeroflot" in 2013 put six such planes to a fence.
– Speak, they were unprofitable. At the western cars two engines, and at yours – four, eat a lot of fuel.
– Here it is necessary to be objective: in 1993 we transferred to operation of 6 planes which not quite met the requirements of airline: had the 1st category of landing, and it is necessary 3rd, on the engine and the equipment there were difficulties because of their novelty. But we had no skilled plane to lick the car into shape – to a genkonstruktor there is nothing was to carry out tests! Then we restored one plane, leased it to airline, and the received money began to spend for equipment completion.
With the Perm engines first seriously were worn out, but now it already quite decent cursors. Then received the 2nd category of landing, and already the plane has the 3rd, then finished it on a resource …
I always considered: let the equipment will be slightly simpler, but the. On Il-96-300 there was only one import system – inertial navigation, similar we did not manage to make.
And as to profitability, I remember, how you once already were interested in one document. I now will give it to you. This letter of the operator to chief designer Il-96-300 from 8/2/2011 years. There it is told: «… operation of planes Il-96-300 in JSC Aeroflot in the conditions of the competition to long-haul planes of foreign production proves the commercial appeal both on loading, and on a departure regularity in flight». In this letter "Aeroflot" asks to increase the list of the minimum equipment and time at which they could fly with a large number of the refused units.
– Only? Then the rest in Il-96-300 suited them?
– And it is formalities. Plane repeatedly резервирован. Refusal of any its system does not lead to a situation above, than only complication of conditions of piloting.
– But all the same Il-96-300 do not order. Buy "Boeings", "Erbasa" though currency payments on their leasing are very heavy now – airlines on them are ruined. Why it occurs? How in general happened, what Russia, got used to consider the large aviation power, gave a niche of long-haul planes to the western companies without fight?
– Ask about it companion Khristenko. It he declared that we will not do shirokofyuzelyazhny planes. And after all Il-96 at that time was already in a mass production. Silt-96Т without special problems, having only made an interior, it was possible to turn in passenger on 380-400 places. In the sizes it same, as "Boeing-777". On Il-96 it would be possible to put two built-in ladders as on Il-86 that it flied and sat down at any airports.
– So why now do not do, when all shout about import substitution?
– Not to me a question.
– Well, it is good, when Khristenko gave up as a bad job our long-haul planes, it after all somehow proved it?
– Who what gave up as a bad job – everything disputably. Here recently I read in the press: we will build the shirokofyuzelyazhny plane with Chinese. Me, clearly, surprised that in Russia someone threatened on such project and who – I at all do not know. It seems such planes at us always became in "Ilyushin’s" experimental design bureau under the direction of Novozhilov. And now?
I start to find out in OAK. To me speak: yes, decided to do with China the plane on 300 places. I ask: what wing? Answer: black, from composit materials. I am interested: what year of release? It appears, the 2025th. Theoretically to me 100 years by then can knock.
Thus I know that Chinese wanted to do Il-96Т in passenger option, but, seemingly, changed the mind, as the Boeing firm to them will construct soon the plant.
– Oh, greetings from Beijing as Il-96Т, and to the plane that planned to make by 2025!
– I do not know. I to it have no relation.
– And in my opinion, when such terms – are called 2025, – everything very much even is clear. It as at Hodzhi Nasreddin: by then either the donkey, or the padishah does not become. But under these grandiose plans already now it is possible to open two budgetary cranes from which the state money will begin to flow. From one officials in China, will scoop from another – in Russia. And real benefit from it will be received by "Boeing".
– I will not make comments on your words, I will tell only as once Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin flied on Il-14 to have a rest in Sochi … It returned then, brought together us and speaks: «I looked, who uses aircraft: either sent, or men of means. And we should make the plane which would be available to broad masses of the Soviet people».
It was 1955. And here in 1956 there is a resolution on Il-18 plane creation. On July 4, 1957 it flew up. And on April 20, 1959 Il-18 flight Moscow-Adler and Moscow-Alma-Ata of the beginnings regular flights on airlines. And tickets for it were more expensive not, than journey to a train compartment.
Or, for example, our Il-76. At the end of the 1967th there was a resolution on its creation. In March the 1971st it flew up, and in the 1975th was taken advantage. Further: Silt-86 flew up in 1976, passengers started to carry on April 26, 1980. Il-96-300 flew up in December of the 1988th, and on lines left in the 1993rd.
– These are quite foreseeable terms. Now – the twentieth anniversaries. Really the more long you build, the state is more than you and more long feeds? Perhaps a problem in something another: technologies, composit materials, with which at us a problem?
– Probably … But we managed to make a fuselage compartment of composit materials for regional Il-114. Did scientific research institute in Khotkovo situated near Moscow. Americans round that compartment, as now there still costs, a deep path wore, before undertook "Boeing-787".
– They undertook the, and your fuselage from composites in Khotkovo costs.
– All of you want, that I hit in criticism. And I simply ascertain: Russia has planes! And first of all military. Our fighters for example. They do not concede western, and in many respects them surpass.
We have a fine attack plane of Su-25, I well know it, as we were going to compete to it – there was at us such Il-102 project. In Syria now Su-25 plays very serious role. And after all did it when the term "attack plane" in general was under a ban. Khrushchev spoke: what else attack aircraft if we solve all questions rockets? And when on firm there came the high administration, Su-25 hid, closing canvas.
But designers nevertheless licked it into shape. And it is very pleasant to me to see, how now Su-25 works in Syria. Also our Il-76 in the same place flies. It was my first plane. Sergey Vladimirovich Ilyushin then still worked, though already very badly felt. Silt-76 built all Union – at once some serial plants: a wing – Tashkent, plumage – Kiev, doors – Kharkov … It was bolshushchy cooperation.
First we let out on 20 cars in a year. Dmitry Fedorovich Ustinov arrived on the Tashkent plant, looked and speaks: «No, so business will not go. It is necessary to let out on 70 planes annually». For this purpose at once constructed new buildings, established the additional equipment, and we began to do on 5 cars monthly. Here that the such – desire of the customer to receive the car!
– Now after all again began release Il-76. But it is already deeply modernized Il-76 of MD 90А. It on how many pieces do?
– Though say that it is the deep modernization, no depth there is present. Only the wing is made on da’s more modern technology electronics put. And so, the same my plane on which we with general Margelov fulfilled a desantirovaniye. Why it so love and anew do? Yes because in it for whom it was under construction put heart and soul.
And as to quantity, new Il-76 МД90А restarted in 2006. In 2013 it departed. Today less than 10 pieces are made. However, there is an order for 39 cars till 2020.
– Again ten years’ horizons …
– I do not solve it … I understand only: everything that we once created, it appeared great. After all now not only my Il-76 anew began to do, restart gather both Tu-22М3, and Tu-160, and An-124 "Ruslan". All these my contemporaries made.
– Why throughout all our conversation as soon as I ask you, why we do not build now own planes, you answer at once: I do not solve, not to me a question?
– Because after I made the plane and received on it the type certificate, it becomes the goods.
– … and to it the notorious corruption component at once is pasted?
– I do not know that there it is pasted, I only establish the fact. And here to you example: in July of last year president Putin arrived on plant to Samara where do An-140 – the good plane, it is slightly less than ours Il-114. In Samara to the president speak: because of events in Ukraine interaction on An-140 with "antonovets" stopped, therefore we want to do Il-114. It is necessary 5-6 billion rubles. The president answers: for such car is not the question price.
– Also that?
– Further – long history … But if it is short, the Samara plant is a private business. Someone did not want to support it budget money. Told: let’s build in Kazan. There the fine plant, but now it is engaged in military Tu-22М3 and Tu-160. And here passed more than a year, and the decision on Il-114 and is not present.
– Silt-114 could not become the goods? Where exit?
– Know, in 1998 in one interview I said that Charles Marx has a formula "goods-money-goods". Pay attention: on the first place there are goods, then – money, then again – the goods. Today in a course other formula: "money-goods-money". Thus goods not Russian, but foreign. And money which only partially remain in Russia. Therefore the domestic industry, and aviation in particular, in own state appeared as the stepdaughter and is compelled to get out in all ways to survive and though somehow to make the goods.
– Then since 1998 in aviation industry still exchanged nothing …
– Then I said that it is necessary to think seriously of privileges for those who will take part in implementation of important projects for the state. Besides I come back to a formula "goods-money-goods". If it is not favorable to bank to invest money in production, it it will never do. And the strong-willed decision here you will achieve nothing. It is necessary to create such rules of the game when investment in production becomes not less interesting, than scrolling of money on trading operations.
– Now I understand, why you repeat: not my question … It turns out, speak – do not speak, and you all the same do not hear. Nearly 20 years.
– Do not hear not only me. (Laughs.) I have still the kindest relations with the outstanding designer of Boeing firm Joe Satr who made the first shirokofyuzelyazhny Boeing-747 plane. We are familiar with it since 1965. Now Joe, as well as I, the adviser in the firm, likes to play golf. I ask it: «Joe, you often come to "Boeing"?» He answers: «Henry, you understand, I sometimes come, something I criticize, something I tell them … But they all the same in own way do then. So it is better to play golf».
… And I here so cannot. All the same honest, every day at 9.00 here, on a workplace.
– Means, for something else hope.
– I hope … All life was the optimist. In Russia it is impossible to exterminate aircraft. Anyway – it will break through. Only on it time will leave. And it it is a pity.
Recently saw a teleplot: the pensioner himself constructed the plane, departed on it, fell and broke a leg. In the country where even pensioners build planes to kill aircraft it is impossible. It always was our favourite child. On, whether the country can build planes, always judged at what level of technical development it is, as the aircraft pulls for itself metallurgy, chemistry, other sciences, technologies … And we always built planes. Also sold them.
– Now «effective managers» try to build and sell them. And you, with your experience and intelligence, – the adviser. Why?
– When firm incorporated, the genkonstruktor which was before the responsible director, lost imperious powers. He began to submit to the general director. And to solve technical strategic questions without a right to sign under the financial document it it is similar to "immaculate conception". To fight for the power there were useless, especially when to you 80 years.
– While the person has a sharp mind and health allows, to fight for the power – not a sin. I think, there would be people who supported you.
– No … It was necessary to fight earlier. There are mistakes which it is already impossible to correct later. They influence all subsequent events. I understand now it.
… But that, probably, I so never also cannot understand, so it why planes of the Russian production are not become necessary to Russia?