Pillars of our motorostroyeniye
In the world there are not a lot of the enterprises making modern aviation engines for fighters and civil engines in a class of draft from 10 tons. Leading players here «Pratt энд Whitney», "Rolls-Royce", «General electrician», "Snekma". Here it is also possible to carry "Evrodzhet", engaged in production of engines for "Evrofayter". In Russia in creation and production of aircraft engines ODK – the Incorporated dvigatelestroitelny corporation exclusively is engaged. About problems of domestic engine-building speech in brought to attention of readers of "military industrial complex" a material also will go.
Unlike OAK the Incorporated dvigatelestroitelny corporation integrated all branch practically without the rest. No serious engines outside of ODK are present. Differently, any significant industry programs without ODK participation are impossible today in principle.
"Russia – very small country for sale of engines. Without an exit to the world market their production rests against very big technological and personnel risks"
ODK got even into the sphere of space engines. In particular, it absorbed JSC Kuznetsov (Samara) which is included into number of the enterprises not only aviation, but also space engine-building. "Kuznetsov" is rocket engines NK-33, RD-107A, RD-108A and aviation engines NK-12MP, NK-25, NK-32. That is without any exaggeration of ODK and in Samara the high-grade hostess that the recent personnel leapfrog in "kuznetsovsky" firm, difficult explainable from the point of view of logic and common sense showed.
In the Russian engine-building the former structure, allowed to keep branch in the most difficult 90th years now is broken. These institutes bore in themselves enormous experience of a survival. Their reforming, on the one hand, ripened. But with another – it is very easy to lose unique experience. Also it is essential risk factor at present reforming. Today ODK is based on the budgetary financing. And creation of corporation without the state participation would be impossible. Today it is sharply necessary, and it is probably good. But whether will manage ODK to survive, if public financing is not increased, and even to decrease? Question that is called the open.
Now the new structure of branch is created. To speak about a zhiznestoykost while there are numerous structural and personnel reorganizations, difficult. Time is necessary to define operability of new bodies and the enterprises.
Today in ODK the classical hierarchical structure with any large number of administrative superstructures is formed. In particular, Rostekh (where ODK enters) is in this case holding structure of the 1st level, "Defence industry" – holding structure of the 2nd level, actually ODK – holding structure of the 3rd level.
Andrey Sedykh’s collage
Big exaggeration will not tell that in all three structures schemes of movement of money are fulfilled only. Exactly there numerous "pipelines" on which the monetary weight, and also innumerable gates and the latches serving for the direction of means in this or that party moves are located. Thus chiefs of gates, latches and valves (on two, three and more provisions) in full chocolate, and for holding structures as a whole are characteristic the most expensive chalets at exhibitions of arms and military equipment, cars of a representation class in which fine hlopets in suits from leading fashion houses, and also other tangible attributes of wellbeing sit.
Below ODK – directly the enterprises. In any case so it was planned initially. But during numerous restructurings and the motions which are characterizing at least by organizational delight, within actually ODK one more administrative structure – divisions is entered. It is quite possible that besides financial streams will be present there and any production functions. In particular, the division of aircraft engines of civil appointment and a division of military engines are created, and to experts some convention of this division at once is appreciable.
As modern Russian holding structures often represent a certain meeting of people with the unknown competences, picked up for principles of personal devotion and consanguinity, it is easy to predict, as at new administrative level – ODK divisions – there will be approximately same shots.
If to look narrowly at all three floors of administrative hierarchy, it is easy to notice that any of them is not in practice the founder of engines. Their moral right to be engaged in it on anything is not based. As a matter of fact and now formation of a certain administrative personnel proceeds. This process in creation of modern engines – a question too while open will be how productive.
When we speak about aviation engine-building in Russia, we mean engine-building in Russia and in Ukraine. By and large separately they do not exist. It whoever also that spoke, a uniform complex. The available program of import substitution gives a certain chance of creation of an independent dvigatelestroitelny complex in Russia, but this chance should still manage to use. From the point of view of national security the dvigatelestroitelny autarchy is probably justifiable. But from the point of view of economy and technologies this movement in an opposite direction taking into account world tendencies. «The big three» – «Pratt энд Whitney», "Rolls-Royce", «General the electrician» – actually in the world market in some projects is presented in the form of various alliances that increases competitiveness of production in the conditions of very rigid rivalry.
Whether will suffice at Russia of resources – financial, technological, personnel to solve a problem of creation of a necessary line of the engines covering all requirements samoleto-and vertoletostroyeniye, – a question very difficult. Let’s try simply (in the form of the table) to represent a condition of the Russian aviation engine-building at the present stage of its development.
Planes and engines
That is calls are simply huge. All this table to fill, own forces hardly will possible. And this circumstance involuntarily lifts a cooperation subject. There is a question: with whom? China did not leave today yet on that level at which it can be a source of technologies. And as the source of resources Beijing too does not want to work, as it has possibilities one way or another to extract technologies of engine-building in the West. Some options are probably possible. But not without costs.
For today in the Russian aviation engine-building there are only two golden gooses. First, this family of aircraft engines AL-31 with which the line of Su-27 planes – Su-30 is completed. Secondly, the engine for TB3-117 helicopters and its numerous variations. All the rest is incomparable on turns and is non-profitable. For a start we will stop on aircraft engines.
AL-31 and others
Let’s remind, AL-31 is a series of aviation high-temperature turbojet double-circuit engines with the forsazhny chambers, developed under the direction of A.M.Lyulki in NPO Saturn. Since 1981 AL-31 engines are made on UEPA (Ufa) and MMPP "Salute" (Moscow). About the 2013th engine gathers within an ODK division «Engines for fighting aircraft», for a hot part "Salute", for cold and assembly – UEPA answers, to OMO. As the business structure of UEPA is better than "Salute".
JSC Ufa Engine Industrial Association – the innovative enterprise which is carrying out development, production and an aftersales service of gas-turbine engines for military aircraft. Why UEPA very well develops? To explain it it is possible in many respects for that UEPA long time was private enterprise. And for it the spirit of an initiative, innovation is in many respects characteristic. JSC UEPA serially lets out turbojets for planes Su-35C families (product 117С), Su-27 (AL-31Ф), Su-30 families (AL-31Ф and AL-31ФП), Su-25 families (R-95Sh), technical knots on helicopters of KA and Mi. Association is head enterprise of a division «Engines for fighting aircraft».
There are also certain objective reasons for UEPA leadership. In particular, in Moscow to develop engine-building, excuse, simply ridiculously. For workers in Pervoprestolnuyu should be delivered in any way of the organized set.
Prospects in this segment of engine-building are. In many respects they are connected with growing GOZ. Really, it increases every year. But any more does not generate such profit, as export in former times.
There is still an engine 117С – turbojet double-circuit forsazhny with an operated vector of draft (is deep traction and resource modernization of the AL-31FP engine). The engine 117С is created by NPO Saturn (scientific and technological center of Arkhip Lyulki) for the multipurpose fighter Su-35 of development of AHK "Sukhoi". On the geometrical parameters and fastening places by the plane the engine 117С corresponds to the predecessors – AL-31Ф and AL-31ФП. It gives the chance at insignificant completion of a motor-gondola and the equipment to use the engine 117С for modernization of park of earlier made planes of type Su-27/Su-30 in interests of the Air Force of the Russian Federation and the foreign states. The engine 117С is regarded by experts as intermediate, in the long term – the 5th generation.
The wrong some words about the RD-33 engine will not tell. It is established on all updatings of the world famous fighter checked in fighting conditions MiG-29 (now it is maintained in 29 countries of the world). The engine has the high relation of bent for to weight, low specific fuel consumption, high gazodinamichesky stability in all range of operating modes, heights and speeds of flight, including at use of rocket and gun arms. As a result of design improvement during long operation of several thousand engines reliability of the last updatings corresponds to the international standards. RD-33 engines of three updatings now are issued: series 2, series 3, and also updated RD-33MK for the fighters MIG-29K/KUB and its derivatives.
Those engines which are made for MiG firm on Chernyshev Moscow Machine-Building Enterprise, will be partially issued on UEPA, partially in Omsk engine-building association of a name of Baranov (enters into Salyut Gas turbine engineering research and production center).
Development of this family of engines (with draft to 10 tons) under a big question. For them simply there are no planes. RD-33 appeared as the engine for the easy fighter of the 4th generation. Whether there will be in Russia a plane in this niche – a big question. And even if will be, at all the fact that for it will develop a new desyatitonnik. Thus, this niche of domestic engine-building is still capable to bring in today incomes, but in principle conducts to the deadlock.
The main present problem for this division – growing dependence on GOZ and rather low in comparison with previous years profitability. An available reserve, a distinct market niche, but rather narrow and not diversified, for today – risk factor for this engine.
In the world of industrial production of engines of motors only for military aircraft is not present, it is a question of technologies. But in November, 2012 of JSC ODK the decision on creation of a division of civil aviation engines is made, within which JSC NPO Saturn responsibility on JSC Aviadvigatel and JSC PMZ management are delegated.
JSC Aviadvigatel – the developer of aircraft engines for modern planes Il-96, Tu-204, Tu-214, Il-76МФ, etc., gas-turbine installations for power and a gazoperekachka, the supplier of gas-turbine power plants.
JSC Perm Engine Company soriyentirovano on a mass production of aircraft engines for civil and military aviation, industrial gas-turbine installations for power plants and gas transportation.
As within ODK two divisions are created, there is a need of a transfer of technologies already in ODK. It even a certain call for ODK – whether can answer it it without excessive internal shocks and personnel and structural tension.
TB3-117 and others
The second chicken laying in branch gold eggs, – helicopter engines of row TB3-117. Let’s remind, TB3-117 is a family of the aviation turbovalny engines developed in 1965-1972 in experimental design bureau of a name of V.Ya.Klimov under the direction of S. P. Izotov and S. V. Lyunevich. The engine is produced in lots since 1972 on ZPOM "Motorostroitel" (nowadays PAO "Motor Sich", Zaporozhye, Ukraine). From the moment of creation it was let out more than 25 000 TB3-117 various updatings. Let’s especially emphasize that it is one of the most reliable aviation engines in the world. Niche, it is necessary to tell directly, it is huge. It is business of a world class which on medium-term prospect is completely provided with orders. It both market of engines, and market of their repair.
Problem here the following. This niche was completely grasped until recently by JSC Motor Sich which is one of leading enterprises in the world on release of aviation engines for planes and helicopters, and also industrial gas-turbine installations. "Motor Sich" – the dynamic private enterprise which is actually belonging to director general Vyacheslav Boguslayev.
The initial engine is developed in Leningrad in Klimovsk firm. The structure of intellectual property on this engine is extremely confused. Now JSC Klimov – the leading Russian developer of gas-turbine engines. Helicopter engines of this enterprise treat VK-2500 and VK-2500P.
The Turbovalny VK-2500 engine is intended for modernization of average Mi-8MT/Mi-17 helicopters, Mi-24, Mi-14, Ka-32, Ka-50, Mi-28, etc. It is further development of engines of TB3-117 family and differs from base TB3-117BM the characteristics raised on 15-20 percent on capacity, introduction of new digital system of automatic control and FADEC type control, and also the increased resource. In 2000-2001 the engine finished certified and state bench tests.
The Turbovalny VK-2500P engine (PS) is intended for modernization of average helicopters Mi-28H, Ka-52, Mi-24/35, Mi-8MT/Mi-17 and their updatings. VK-2500P (PS) are further updatings of family in a class of capacity of 2000-2500 horsepowers. Development of R of PS))) began in 2011. After completion of state tests and obtaining the certificate of type the engine will be started in a mass production.
However the most modern updatings TB3-117 are made in Zaporozhye. And superiority of "Motor Sich" is obvious. VK-2500 is less perfect. While it was created, cunning Zaporozhetses did not fall down and rolled out more advanced version. To that, undoubtedly, engine TVZ-117vma-SBM1V belongs. It passed a full cycle of the state tests and received the international certificate of the CT267-AMD type, which chairman of Interstate aviation committee Tatyana Anodina personally handed over to the chairman of board of directors of "Motor Sich" Vyacheslav Boguslayev. The Ukrainian engine meets the most rigid international requirements, is trouble-free in the conditions of highlands, so, razrezhennost of air and differences of high-low temperatures.
JSC Klimov does 50 engines in a year and to become the leading player in the market, it is necessary to give out at least 400-500. Here Russia rests against very big technological and personnel risks. To increase production ten times, investments of simply huge scale, technical structure are required, the base is sold. And meanwhile Vyacheslav Boguslayev was strongly dug round worldwide. At it everything developed long ago and is seized. But the unpredictable political situation in Ukraine can help and JSC Klimov.
And "Motor Sich" while strong holds fingers on a throat Russian samoleto-and a vertoletostroyeniye. It is enough to list a line of engines made by Zaporozhetses only. In particular, it:
engine D-136/D-136 of a series 1 – is intended for the most load-lifting in the world of transport helicopters Mi-26 and Mi-26Т; engine D-436-148 – is intended for installation by planes of An-148 family of regional and main airlines in extent to 7000 kilometers. Is the next updating of the D-436T1 engines established on passenger Tu-334 planes; D-436TP – it is intended for the multi-purpose Be-200 amphibian; D-18T – "Ruslan" is applied by transport An-124 planes, An-124-100; D-36 series 1, 2А, 3А. D-Z6 engines of a series 1 are established on passenger Yak-42 liners, and D-Z6 series 2А and FOR – on transport An-72 and An-74; D-36 to a series 4А it is intended for the plane An-74TK-300.
Problems of a civil division
Let’s stop on some problems of civil engines, though any division into the engine civil and military as it is already told above, very conditionally. For a start some words about the PS-90A program (Perm). Today it does not generate profit in that measure in which from it it expected. The engine is poorly competitive. Nevertheless it is necessary to notice that this program in itself will not die soon. Planes fly, engines are required. But the big future at PS-90A, seemingly, is not present.
Today the unique perspective program in a civil division – the PD-14 engine which will go on MS-21 and on any new designs. But it will not bring still for a long time profit and demands considerable financial and material investments.
Separately it is necessary to tell about the joint Russian-French perspective SaM-146 engine with draft of 7-8 tons. It can easily get to our turbulent time under different sanctions. And the most difficult in this engine is done by the French Snecma Moteurs, and Rybinsk as a matter of fact fries thus cutlets. How to leave this situation, not so clearly.
The civil division is formed on the basis of Rybinsk "Saturn". And so it developed historically that the main forces – intellectual and production – were concentrated in Perm. And permyakov-dvigatelist today force to work actually for food, and sale of production is referred to competence of Rybinsk that in itself is the cause for interdepartmental tension and dismantlings. And after all for long decades Perm always had Rybinsk on pickup. This problem tried to solve in the different ways – both power, and compromises. But Rybinsk wins, and for the reasons which are very far from successes in creation of modern engines.
What for today the most problem points in a civil division? It is necessary to refer engine creation to that in 3-3,5 thousand horsepowers for the Il-112 military transport plane. It is necessary to get rid somehow of the Ukrainian dependence connected with the D-436 engine with which Russian Be-200 (and An-148 too is completed). There are numerous problems on helicopter engines – both low power, and very big (D-136 for Mi-26 – besides the Ukrainian development). The problem here is that very big investments are required at absolutely unwarranted sales market.
Considering complexity of a product, the market should be not less than one thousand pieces a year that though somehow to beat off the invested money. Purely Russian niches of it will not provide at the biggest imagination. Let’s tell, the Ministry of Defence will order 100 Il-112 planes. These are 200-300 engines. And what farther to do with the engine of this type?
Abroad seriality – thousands engines. Logic thus the very simple: to spend for development of the engine of one billion dollars, and then to sell it, say, in thousands for one million piece. And thus to pay back expenses. And here at small seriality cost of research and development will be huge. At large seriality and it is possible to allocate big money for research and development at smaller risks. Therefore CB and the enterprises with small seriality always will be in outsiders in the sphere of creation of modern aircraft engines.
The problem has global character. Even the USA do not presume to make to themselves all demanded number of engines for the aircraft. Therefore the import substitution problem here is very painful. It is necessary to tell directly that Russia – too small country for engines. And without an exit to the world market here anything cardinally not to solve.
Thus there is a number of system calls. In particular, on creation of the modern engine not less than 10 years are required at absolutely unwarranted success of a plan. Technologically the engine where is more difficult than the plane. As developers, the plane – very primitive adaptation for engine flight joke. Let’s tell differently: if you play a lottery with the engine, chances of success practically are not present. If with plane it still somehow can pass, with the engine – under no circumstances. In a word, the problems facing domestic engine-building, both are volume, and are difficult. As well as in what direction they will decide, will show the near future.