Wide-Body, Double-Aisle Aircraft

Seven-abreast seating and more would require more than one aisle to facilitate passenger and crew traffic in the cabin. These aircraft are also known as wide­bodied aircraft. Figure 6.6 shows a typical seating arrangement for a double-aisle, wide-body aircraft carrying up to 555 passengers; however, high-density seating of all economy-class passengers can exceed 800 (e. g., A380). These large passenger numbers require special attention to manage comfort, amenities, and movement.

Section 6.3.1 discusses general considerations for each type of aircraft seating (e. g., doors, fineness ratio, closure angles, seat and aisle dimensions, and internal facil­ities). A typical cross-section is circular but can be elongated, as shown in Fig­ure 4.12. A double-deck aircraft has an elongated cross-section.

Table 6.2 provides typical dimensions to establish a wide-body fuselage width. All dimensions are in inches, and decimals are rounded up. Refer to Figure 3.50 for the symbols used. More fuselage-interior details are given in Table 6.2. Designers are free to adjust the dimensions – the values in the table are typical.

Seven abreast (160 to 260passengers). The Boeing 767 appears to be the only air­craft with seven-abreast seating and it can reconfigure to eight-abreast seating. Typi­cal 7-abreast seating accommodates 170 to 250 passengers, but variant designs could change that number on either side. The number of cabin crew increases accord­ingly. The fuselage diameter is wider to provide generous space. Space below the floorboards can accommodate cargo containers (see Section 4.7.8). To maximize the below-floorboard space, the fuselage height could be slightly elongated, with the bottom half suitable for container sizes. A separate cargo space is located at the rear fuselage.

Summary. A typical seven-abreast fuselage (with better comfort) would have the following features:

Cabin Width: Seven-abreast seating is arranged as 2-3-2 in a cluster of two at

the window sides and a cluster of three at the center between the two aisles. Very little gap is required between the armrest and the cabin wall because the fuselage radius is adequate. The cabin width is from 190 to 196 inches, depending on the cus­tomer’s demand for the comfort level. The aisle width could be increased to facilitate cabin-crew access and passenger move­ment.

Cross-Section: The fuselage cross-section is typically circular but can be oval.

It follows the cabin-section contour with added wall thickness (see Table 6.2). Full standing headroom is no longer an issue. There is potential for aft-fuselage luggage space.

Front/Aft Closure: See Table 4.4 for the range of dimensions.

Fuselage Length: This depends on the number of passengers and facilities. Add front and aft closures to the fuselage midsection.

Family Variants: Addition or subtraction of fuselage plugs, to a maximum of

ten rows, conveniently distributed on each side of the wing, is possible. The baseline version could start with 200 passengers and range from 160 to 260 passengers.

Eight abreast (250 to 380 passengers, wide-body aircraft). The Airbus 300/310/ 330/340 series has been configured for eight-abreast seating. Figure 6.6 shows an example of an 8-abreast seating arrangement for a total of 254 passengers (in mixed classes; for all economy-class, 380 passengers in a variant design is possible). Space below the floorboards can accommodate larger containers. Seat width, pitch, and layout with two aisles results in considerable flexibility to cater to a wide range of

customer demands. The cross-section is typically circular, but to maximize below – floor board space, it could be slightly elongated, with the bottom half suitable for cargo container sizes. There is potential for a separate cargo space at the rear fuselage.

Summary. A typical eight-abreast fuselage would have the following features:

Cabin Width: Eight-abreast seating is arranged as 2-4-2 in a cluster of two

at the window sides and a cluster of four in the center between the two aisles. Very little gap is required between the armrest and the cabin wall because the fuselage radius is adequate. The cabin width is from 210 to 216 inches, depending on the cus­tomer’s demand for the comfort level. The aisle width is nearly the same as for a wide-bodied layout to facilitate cabin-crew and passenger movement.

Cross-Section: The fuselage cross-section is typically circular but can be oval.

It follows the cabin-section contour with added wall thickness (see Table 6.2). Full standing headroom is adequate. There is potential for aft-fuselage luggage space.

Front/Aft Closure: See Table 4.4 for the range of dimensions.

Fuselage Length: This depends on the number of passengers and facilities. Add front and aft closures to the fuselage midsection.

Family Variants: Addition or subtraction of fuselage plugs, to a maximum of

eleven rows, conveniently distributed on each side of the wing, is possible. The baseline version could start with 300 passen­gers and range from 250 to 380 passengers.

Nine to Ten Abreast (350 to 480passengers, wide-body aircraft). The current ICAO restriction for fuselage length is 80 m. The associated passenger capacity for a single-deck aircraft is possibly the longest currently in production. It appears that only the Boeing 777 has been configured to nine – or ten-abreast seating in a single deck.

Figure 6.6 is an example of a 9-abreast seating layout for a total of 450 pas­sengers. Seat width, pitch, and a layout with two aisles has a similar approach to the earlier seven-abreast seating designs, which embeds considerable flexibility for catering to a wide range of customer demands. Cabin-crew numbers can be as many as twelve. Space below the floorboards can carry larger containers (i. e., LD3). The cross-section is typically circular, but to maximize below-floorboard space, it could be slightly elongated, with the bottom half suitable for container sizes. There is potential for a separate cargo space at the rear fuselage.

Summary. A typical nine – or ten-abreast fuselage seating arrangement would have the following features:

Cabin Width: Nine-abreast seating is arranged as 2-5-2 in a cluster of two at

the window sides and a cluster of five in the center between the two aisles. A 3-3-3 arrangement is also possible but not shown. Very little gap is required between the armrest and the cabin

wall because the fuselage radius is adequate. The cabin width is from 230 to 236 inches, depending on the customer’s demand for the comfort level. The aisle width is nearly the same as for the wide-bodied layout to facilitate cabin-crew access and pas­senger movement.

Cross-Section: The fuselage cross-section is typically circular but can be oval.

It follows the cabin-section contour with added wall thickness (see Table 6.2). Full standing headroom is no longer an issue. There is potential for an aft-fuselage luggage space.

Front/Aft Closure: See Table 4.4 for the range of dimensions.

Fuselage Length: This depends on the number of passengers and facilities. Add front and aft closures to the fuselage midsection.

Family Variants: Addition or subtraction of fuselage plugs, to a maximum of

eleven rows, conveniently distributed on each side of the wing, is possible. The baseline version could start with 400 passen­gers and range from 300 to 480 passengers.

Ten abreast and more (more than 400 to almost 800 passenger capacity, wide-body and double-decked). A more than 450-passenger capacity provides the largest class of aircraft with variants exceeding an 800-passenger capacity. This would invariably become a double-decked configuration to keep fuselage length below the current ICAO restriction of 80 m. Double-decking could be partial (e. g., Boeing 747) or full (e. g., Airbus 380), depending on the passenger capacity; currently, there are only two double-decked aircraft in production.

With a double-decked arrangement, there is significant departure from the rou­tine adopted for a single-decked arrangement. Passenger numbers of such large capacity would raise many issues (e. g., emergency escape compliances servicing and terminal handling), which could prove inadequate compared to current practice. Reference [4] may be consulted for double-decked aircraft design. The double­decked arrangement produces a vertically elongated cross-section. Possible and futuristic double-decked arrangements are shown in Figure 4.12. The number of cabin crew increases accordingly. The space below the floorboards is sufficient to accommodate larger containers (i. e., LD3).

Summary. A typical ten-abreast fuselage would have the following features:

Cabin Width: The lower deck of a double-decked aircraft has at most 10

abreast, arranged as 3-4-3 in a cluster of 3 at the window sides and a cluster of 4 in the center between the 2 aisles. Very lit­tle gap is required between the armrest and the cabin wall because the fuselage radius is adequate. The cabin width is from 250 to 260 inches, depending on the customer’s demand for the comfort level. The aisle width is nearly the same as for a wide-bodied layout to facilitate cabin-crew and passen­ger movement.

Cross-Section: A double-decked fuselage cross-section is elongated at this design stage. It follows the cabin-section contour with added wall thickness (see Table 6.2). Full standing headroom is no longer an issue. There is potential for aft-fuselage luggage space.

Front/Aft Closure: See Table 4.4 for the range of dimensions.

Fuselage Length: This depends on the number of passengers and facilities.

Add front and aft closures to the fuselage midsection.

Family Variants: Addition or subtraction of fuselage plugs, to a maximum of

10 rows, conveniently distributed on each side of the wing, is possible. Fuselage length is less than 80 m.

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