Prandtl Lifting Line Theory
18.104.22.168 Downwash Evolution
For a large aspect ratio (AR) wing without sweep (straight lifting line) how does the downwash vary with distance from the lifting line from upstream infinity to downstream infinity near the x-axis and in particular what is the relationship between ww(y) and wT(y), — b < У < 2, where the former is the downwash at the lifting line and the latter the downwash in the Trefftz plane, far downstream. Explain with a simple argument.
22.214.171.124 Wing with Ideal Loading
Consider an aircraft wing with ideal loading (minimum induced drag) at a cruise lift coefficient (Cl)cruise.
Calculate the maximum value of the circulation (root circulation) Г0 and the downwash at the lifting line ww(y).
126.96.36.199 Induced Downwash in Manoeuvre
The aircraft needs to roll to initiate a left turn. Given that the rolling moment about the aircraft axis is given in terms of the Fourier coefficients by
Cm,0x = —44 AR A2
sketch the circulation distribution and corresponding downwash that will allow such a manoeuvre. Hint: use the simplest Fourier distribution that needs to be added to the ideal loading.
188.8.131.52 Induced Drag in Manoeuvre
Calculate the induced drag and the gain/loss compared to the elliptic loading, assuming that the (Cl)cruise remains unchanged and that A2 = – A1/10.