Other Canard Drawbacks

Canard surfaces usually reduce forward and downward visibility for the flight crew, a drawback in landing approaches and landings. A canard surface added to a conventional tail-last configuration results in three lifting surfaces in tandem. This is objectionable from an analysis and testing standpoint. That is, there are two downwash and sidewash fields to account for, adding to design and testing complexity.

Other Canard Drawbacks

Other Canard Drawbacks

Figure 17.3 A modern canard airplane, the SAAB JAS 39 Gripen. (From Jane’s AH the World’s Aircraft, 1987-1988)

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