Short Biographies of Some Stability and Control Figures
Abzug, Malcolm J. 1920-, b. New York, NY. B. S. (1941) Mass. Inst. of Tech., M. S. (1959), PhD. Engr. (1962), U. of Calif, at Los Angeles. After government laboratory work, he joined Douglas Aircraft, where he was stability and control lead engineer for the A2D-1 and A4D-1. His later industrial experience was at Sperry Gyroscope, TRW Systems, and Northrop on the A-9A, YF-17, and B-2 programs.
A’Harrah, Ralph 1931—, b. Warren, PA. B. S. Aero. (1955), Penn. State U. A’Harrah’s career is balanced between North American Aviation, the U. S. Department of Defense, and NASA. He used ground-based fight simulation as a tool in solving flight dynamics problems associated with hazardous flight. On the AGARD Flight Mechanics Panel, he developed V/STOL flying qualities criteria.
Anderson, Seth B. 1918-, b. Los Altos Hills, CA. B. S. (1941), M. S. (1942), Purdue U. Anderson’s long career at NACA and NASA dealt with handling quality requirements for conventional and VTOL airplanes. He is the principal author of AGARD Report 577 on V/STOL handling criteria.
Ashkenas, Irving L. 1916—, b. New York, NY. B. S. (1937), M. S.M. E. (1938), Ae. E. (1939), Calif. Inst. of Tech. His stability and control career started in industry, first at North American Aviation, then with the Northrop P-61 spoiler ailerons and design requirements forthe XB-35 power controls and artificial-feel systems. He is best known for applying man – in-the-loop theory for flying qualities prediction and as a co-author of Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control.
Bairstow, Leonard 1880-1963, b. Halifax, Yorkshire, U. K. Royal College of Science, London. Bairstow’s major stability and control contributions were the extension of the Bryan equations of motion to the nonsymmetric steady-flight case and development of efficient methods for root extraction, both done in 1914. The 1939 (second) edition of his Applied Aerodynamics was a useful stability and control reference for years.
Barnes, Arthur G. 1929-, b. Wigan, U. K. B. S. (1950), Manchester U. RAF and RauxAF pilot. His career in the United Kingdom industry from 1954 to 1990 included research and development for flight controls, flying qualities, and flight simulation. Barnes proposed the original numerical rating scale for pilot opinion on flying qualities. He is a consultant to the Kungl Tekniske Hogskola (KTH) and SAAB in Sweden.
Bihrle, William, Jr. 1925-, b. New York, NY. B. Ae S. (1945), Rensselaer Poly. Inst. Bihrle contributed to the stability and control designs of the Republic F-105 and XF-103 airplanes. He invented the widely used control anticipation parameter for pullups and plays a leading part in developing advanced spin tunnel rotary balance techniques and methods for improving high angle of attack stability and control.
Bowman, James S., Jr. 1924-, b. Burlington, NC. B. S. (1951), N. C. State Coll. As a leading NASA expert on spinning, Bowman consulted with military and commercial designers on spin problems for many years. He is the author or co-author of more than 40 reports on spinning, including NASA TP 2939 on pressure distribution at spinning attitudes.
Bratt, Robert W. 1918—, b. Palisade, MN. B. S. (1941), M. S. (1942), U. of Michigan. Bratt was a stability and control engineer at the El Segundo Division of Douglas. He pioneered in the application of digital computers to maneuvering flight. He solved drop vehicle instability problems involving aeroelasticity and inertial coupling. He later became Chief of Preliminary Design at Northrop.
Breuhaus, Waldemar O. 1918—, b. Lowell, OH. B. S.Ae. (1940), Carnegie Inst. ofTech., M. S. (1961), State U. of New York at Buffalo. Breuhaus was in charge of stability and control at Vought-Sikorsky during World War II. At Cornell Aero. Lab., later Calspan, he was responsible for the development of the B-26 and T-33 variable-stability airplanes, and he used these machines in flying qualities requirement research.
Bryan, George Hartley 1864-1928, b. Cambridge, U. K. Cambridge U. Bryan’s monumental contribution to the field was the equations of aircraft motion, developed in 1911 in essentially modern form from a preliminary study (with W. S. Williams) in 1904. He later made contributions to compressible flow theory.
Cantrell, Coy R. 1924-, b. Muskogee, OK. B. S. (1953), M. S. (1954), Calif. Inst. ofTech. Cantrell’s long career at Lockheed’s Advanced Development Company (Skunk Works) started in 1954. He shared stability and control responsibility for the SR-71, the Have Blue prototype, and the F-117A, whose air data measurement system he designed. He was also involved in the YF-22A Advanced Tactical Fighter prototype.
Cook, Michael V. 1942-, b. Colchester, U. K. B. Sc. (1965), U. of Southampton, M. Sc. (1967) Coll. of Aeronautics, Cranfield. At Elliott Flight Automation, Ltd., Cook was involved with flight control system research and design on the Hovermarine HM2 hovercraft, the Westland Lynx helicopter, the Panavia Tornado, and the Jaguar fly-by-wire. He teaches at Cranfield College and is the author of Flight Dynamics Principles (1997).
Cook, William H. 1915-, b. Plainview, TX. B. S.M. E. (1934), Rensselaer Poly. Inst., M. S. (1938), Mass. Inst. ofTech. Cook was a designer of the Boeing High-Speed Wind Tunnel and was involved with the stability and control development of many Boeing designs, including the B-29, XB-47, and 707. He was co-inventor of the B-47 electronic yaw damper, one of the first of its kind.
Cooper, George E. 1916-, b. Burley, ID. B. S. (1940), U. of Calif. Cooper combined NACA/NASA engineering and research test pilot careers to become an important stability and control contributor. He is the Cooper of the Cooper-Harper handling qualities rating system and the author of a NASA Technical Note that is a text for test pilot training schools.
Czinczenheim, Joseph 1919-1994, b. Hungary. La Sorbonne, Centre Superieur de Mecanique, Paris. He worked on stability and control problems of the STOL Breguet 941, the transonic Breguet Taon, and the BAC-Breguet-Dassault Jaguar. Later, he was involved with certification of the Dassault Civil Transport /C and with stability and control of several Israeli prototypes. He was a member of the AGARD Flight Mechanics Panel.
Doetsch, Karl-H. 1910-, b. Kaldenhusen, Germany. Dipl.-Ing. (1934), TH Aachen, Dr. – Ing. (1943), TU Berlin. Professor Doetsch is an aeronautical scientist as well as a 3,000- hour test pilot. His contributions are fly-by-wire control (Avro 707C, Do 27, Pembroke), flight simulation, flight recording, and advanced aircraft flight controls. He chaired the
AGARD Flight Mechanics Panel and has made special efforts to broaden international cooperation in education and research.
Duncan, William Jolly 1894-1960, b. Hillhead, Glasgow. D. Sc. (1930), U. of London. Duncan was co-author of the important textbook Elementary Matrices and author of the 1952 book Control and Stability of Aircraft. His other contributions were in the theories of aileron reversal, tail buffeting, aerodynamic derivatives, and flap hinge moments.
Dunn, Orville R. 1916-1997, b. Wayne, PA. B. S. (1939), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Dunn was chief of stability and control at the Douglas Aircraft Santa Monica Division during the designs of the DC-4, C-74, DC-6, DC-7, and DC-8 transports. He produced a useful synthesis of methods for control force reduction by various tab systems. As Director of Aerodynamics he saw the DC-10 through certification.
Efremov, Alexander V. 1944-, b. Gorky Cty, U. S.S. R. Ph. D. (1973), D. Sc. (1996), Moscow Aviation Inst. As an expert in flight dynamics and control and in pilot-in-the-loop problems, Dr. Efremov participated in the flight control system designs for the aerospace vehicle Buran, the airship ALA-40, and the TU-204 and IL-96 airplanes. He is a member of the SAE control and guidance systems committee.
Etkin, Bernard 1918-, b. Toronto, Canada. B. A.Sc. (1941), M. A.Sc. (1947), U. of Toronto, D. Eng. (Hon) (1971), Carleton U. Dr. Etkin had a long career at the University of Toronto, becoming University Professor in 1982. He wrote three standard stability and control texts, which have German, Russian, and Chinese editions. Etkin made many contributions to the theory of flight dynamics, including flight in turbulence and dynamic longitudinal stability at high altitude.
Gates, Sidney B. 1893-1973, b. Watton, England. Gates was a brilliant theorist who did remarkable work on analyzing spins and predicting spin recovery with minimal facilities. Gates is responsible for the important flying qualities parameters of static and maneuver margins and stick force per g. With A. V Stephens, he established the effect of air density on spins. The scope of his stability and control work is truly wide. Gates was the British counterpart of R. R. Gilruth in flying qualities research.
Gee, Brian 1933-, b. Manchester, U. K. B. Sc. (1954), Manchester U. Gee was head of the Flight Control Systems Design Group at British Aerospace, Warton, involved with the Jaguar and Fly-by-Wire Jaguar, the Toronado, EAP, Eurofighter, and the RAE VAAC Harrier. His main contributions were in the areas of component requirements, digital flight control specifications, and system clearance for flight control/structural mode interactions.
Gera, Joseph 1937-, b. Szentes, Hungary. B. Ae. (1961), Auburn U., M. Appl. Mech. (1965), U. of Virginia. At NASA Langley and Dryden Flight Research Facility Gera contributed to understanding the effects of wind gradients on pitch stability. He led efforts at Dryden to integrate simulators into flight research and to measure stability margins “on-line” for such aircraft as the X-29A.
Gibson, John C. 1929-, b. Swatow, China. M. Sc. (1958), Cranfield, Ph. D. (1999), Delft U. of Technology. At English Electric/British Aerospace, 1952-1992, he worked on the flight control systems of the Lightning, TSR-2, and Jaguar and developed new fly-by-wire handling design methods and criteria for the Tornado, BAe FBW Jaguar, the Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP), the Eurofighter, and the VAAC (vectored-thrust) Harrier. He is responsible for the phase-gain, dropback, and other criteria used to prevent pilot-induced oscillations by design.
Gilruth, Robert R. 1913-2000, b. Nashwauk, MN. M. S., U. of Minnesota. He joined NACA in 1937. His major stability and control contributions were design methods for static longitudinal stability and roll performance and an early complete set of flying qualities requirements. He later was Director of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center. He retired in 1973 and was a consultant to NASA from 1974 to 1983.
Glauert, Hermann 1892-1934, b. Sheffield, U. K. B. S. (1915), Trinity Coll., Cambridge. Glauert’s notable work was in unsteady lift, airfoil theory, control surface effectiveness, and propeller theory. He originated the lag in downwash theory that explained damping discrepancies in the longitudinal short-period mode. He made the first nondimensionalization of the equations of airplane motion.
Goett, Harry J. 1910-, b. New York, NY. B. S. (1931), Holy Cross, B. S. (1933), New York U. Goett’s important contribution to stability and control came at NACA, on methods of predicting flying qualities from wind-tunnel tests. In charge of large NASA Ames wind tunnels, he directed high-lift and stability research on swept wings. He later became the Director of NASA’s Goddard Research Center.
Goto, Norohiro 1943-, b. Sasebo, Nagasaki, Japan. B. Eng. (1966), D. Eng. (1972), U. of Tokyo. Dr. Goto developed methods to identify pilot-control behavior in practical multi-input and multi-output aircraft control systems. At Kyushu University he is developing an autonomous flight control system for an unmanned observation blimp. He had been an NRC research associate at NASA Ames Research Center and a Fulbright Scholar at M. I.T.
Graham, F. Dunstan 1922-1992, b. Princeton, NJ. B. S.E. (1943), M. S.E. (1947), Princeton U. As an aerodynamicist at Boeing in 1947 and 1948, Graham made an early analysis of inertial coupling on a pilotless aircraft. At Lear, Inc., he was in charge of automatic controls development for the KC-135 and other jet aircraft. However, he is best known as the co-author with McRuer and Ashkenas of Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control and the co-author with McRuer of Analysis of Nonlinear Control Systems.
Hamel, Peter G. 1936-, b. Hamburg, Germany. Dipl.-Ing. (1963), Dr. – Ing. (1968), TechU. Braunschweig (TUBS), S. M. (1965), Mass. Inst. of Technology. Dr. Hamelhadalong career as the director of the Institute of Flight Research of the German Aerospace Research Center (DLR) and as a professor at TUBS. He is recognized internationally for the development and use of in-flight simulators. He is a leader in European vehicle system identification and in handling qualities research.
Harper, Robert P., Jr. 1926-, b. Gallipolis, OH. S. B. Ae. (1952), S. M.Ae. (1953), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Harper was a Calspan engineer and test pilot who is noted for his part in developing the Cooper-Harper flying qualities rating. He was project engineer on the F-94 and NT-33A variable-stability airplanes during simulation of reentry vehicles and the X-15, as well as during basic flying qualities research.
Harris, Thomas Aubrey 1903-1987, b. Whites, VA. B. S. (1929), William and Mary. Harris designed the NASA Langley Atmospheric and 7 by 10-foot wind tunnels during a long career at Langley He was an expert on flaps and tabs, and he contributed to numerous wind-tunnel studies of control surfaces.
Haus, Frederic Charles 1896-1993, b. St. Gilles, Belgium. Brussels U. (1922). In a long, productive career, Professor Haus headed the famous aeronautical laboratory of Rhode-St.-Genese, published a 1930 book (in French) on airplane stability and control, served as professor at both Ghent and Liege Universities, and was a member of AGARD panels on flight mechanics, guidance, and control.
Heald, Ervin R. 1917—, b. Sultan, WA. B. S.A. E. (1940), U. of Michigan. Heald headed stability and control at the El Segundo division of Douglas Aircraft during the years when that division produced new airplanes on the average of one every two years. He took part in the stability and control work on the U. S. Navy’s XSB2D-1, XBT2D-1, AD-1, XA2D-1, D-558-1, D-558-2, F3D-1, F4D-1, XF5D-1, A3D-1, and A4D-1. Later, Heald was Chief Engineer for the U. S. Air Force’s C-17 transport.
Heppe, R. Richard 1923-, b. Kansas City, MO. B. A. (1944), M. S. (1945), Stanford U., A. E. (1946), Calif. Inst. of Tech. At Lockheed Aircraft, Heppe made significant contributions to understanding the inertial coupling problems of the F-104 and other USAF fighters, and helped find corrections for those problems. He contributed in the unlimited angle-of-attack maneuvering areas of the YF-22A prototypes. He became president of the Lockheed-California Company.
Hodgkinson, John 1943-, b. Ilseworth, U. K. B. Sc. (1965), U. of Southampton, M. S. (1971), St. Louis U. After training at British Aerospace, Warton, he joined McDonnell and then led controls R&D at Northrop. He later was at Eidetics and McDonnell Douglas (Boeing). Hodgkinson’s stability and control contributions are in equivalent systems, agility, and safety. He is the author of Aircraft Handling Qualities.
Hunsaker, Jerome C. 1886-1969, b. Creston, IA. B. S. (1908), Annapolis, M. S. (1912), Mass. Inst. of Tech., D. Sc. (1914), Williams Coll. Dr. Hunsaker was the author of NACA Technical Report No. 1 on inherent dynamic stability, 1915. He taught airplane stability and control at MIT, starting in 1914, and headed the Department of Aeronautical Engineering at MIT for many years.
Jex, Henry R. 1929-, b. Baltimore, MD. S. B. (1951), Mass. Inst. of Tech., M. S. (1958), Calif. Inst. of Tech. Jex developed analytical models of operator-vehicle control and applied them to handling qualities, landing displays, and workload studies. He is the principal developer of the critical-instability tracking task, used for detecting impaired pilots and drivers. Jex designed the control system for the first autostabilized-while-flapping ornithopter, the Q-N pterodactyl replica.
Johnston, Donald E. 1924-1995, b. Huron, SD. B. S. Eng. (1952)., U. of California, Los Angeles. Johnston’s contributions have been in the fields of man/machine control analysis, synthesis, simulation, and full-scale flight test. He was a vice president of Systems Technology, Inc., where he was assigned to the most critical investigations. He conducted studies into control problems of the F-4, F-111, F-14, F-16, and F-18 airplanes and designed control laws for the McDonnell Douglas C-17 cargo airplane.
Jones, Bennett Melvill 1887-1975, b. Birkenhead, England. B. S. (1909), Emmanuel Coll., Cambridge. He joined the National Physical Laboratory in 1910. He contributed the “Dynamics of the Airplane” division in W. F. Durand’s Aerodynamic Theory, published in 1934. This is a key reference, the first complete derivation of aircraft equations of motion, in modern form. His research at Cambridge was on stalling. Jones was a pilot and a decorated gunner in World War I.
Jones, Robert T. 1910-1999, b. Macon, MO. U. of Missouri, 1928, Catholic U. of America, 1933. After working as an airplane designer for the Nicholas Beasley Company, Jones joined NACA in 1934. His long career there produced notable stability and control contributions in lateral control, in the theory of two-control flight, in all-movable controls, and in a very early (1936) application of operator theory to the solution of the equations of aircraft motion.
Kalviste, Juri 1935-1996, b. Tartu, Estonia. B. S. (1957), M. S.E. E. (1960), U. of Washington. He worked on the flight control designs of the Boeing X-20 and Northrop YF-17 airplanes and on the ATF proposal. Kalviste made innovative formulations of the large-amplitude equations of airplane motion to develop departure parameters and methods of combining rotary balance and oscillatory aerodynamic data.
Katayanagi, Ryoji 1946-, b. Gumma Prefecture, Japan. B. S.M. E. Waseda U., M. S. (1972), Ph. D. (2000), U. of Tokyo. At Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Katayanagi analyzed flying qualities and flight controls of the T-2 trainer. He designed flight control laws for the T-2CCV research airplane, the QF-104 drone, and the F-2 fighter. His research interests are multiloop flight controls and PIOs. He leads the engineering team for the NAL scaled supersonic research airplane.
Koppen, Otto C. 1901-1991, B. S. (1924), Mass. Inst. ofTech. Koppen’s career went back to the design of the Ford “Flying Flivver,” a contemporary of the Ford Model A. He joined MIT in 1929 and taught airplane stability and control and airplane design courses there until his retirement in 1965. Koppen did early work on the effects of closing loops on stability. He designed one of the first two-control airplanes, the Skyfarer, as well as the famous STOL Helioplane. Koppen test-flew the Helioplane prototype in 1949 and continued to fly at a ripe age, getting an FAA instrument rating at age 80.
Larrabee, E. Eugene 1920-, b. Marlboro, MA. B. S.Me. (1942), Worcester Poly. Inst., M. S.Ae. (1948), Mass. Inst. ofTech. Larrabee did stability and control design work on the Curtiss C-46, XF15C-1, and XP-87 airplanes. He developed stability derivative extraction methods using time vector analysis. He taught airplane stability and control at MIT and Northrop University for many years. He is a recognized expert on propeller design.
Lecomte, Pierre 1925-, b. France. Ecole Polytechnique, ENSAE. Lecomte was Professor of Flight Mechanics at ENSAE and author of the book Mecanique du Vol. He initiated a new handling qualities approach based on normal and peripheral flight envelopes and a theoretical explanation of wing drop. He was a test pilot in the French Flight Test Center, a Concorde evaluator at Aerospatiale, and chairman of the AGARD Flight Mechanics Panel.
McDonnell, John D. 1937-, b. Hollywood, CA. B. S. (1960), M. S. (1965), U. of Calif, at Los Angeles. At Systems Technology, Inc., he contributed to the analysis and evaluation of flying qualities. At McDonnell Douglas he contributed to the design and evaluation of avionics and control systems for the DC-10, MD-80, T-45, C-17, MD-11, and the space shuttle (HUD). He was the chief avionics engineer and chief avionics FAA DER at McDonnell Douglas, Long Beach.
McRuer, Duane T. 1925-, b. Bakersfield, CA. B. S. (1945), M. S.E. E. (1948), Calif. Inst. of Tech. McRuer is perhaps best known to stability and control engineers as the senior author of “The Green Book,” whose real title is Aircraft Dynamics and Automatic Control. His enormous personal contributions to the field include mathematical models for human control and information processing in closed-loop systems and a well-tested theory of vehicle handling qualities.
McWha, James 1939-, b. Millisle, N. Ireland. B. S., Queens U., Belfast. McWha was chief engineer of flight systems at Boeing Commercial Group throughout the development of the fly-by-wire 777 transport. Prior to a 30-year employment at Boeing, he worked at Shorts Brothers, N. Ireland. He is vice chairman of an SAE control and guidance subcommittee and a member of a NASA Flight Controls and Guidance Panel.
Milliken, William F., Jr. 1911-, b. Old Town, ME. B. S. Ae. and Math. (1934), Mass. Inst. of Tech. At Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory, later Calspan, he was a leader in the application of servomechanism techniques to airplane stability and control, including the determination of airplane stability derivatives and transfer functions from flight-test frequency-response measurements.
Mueller, Robert K. 1909-1994, b. Waterbury, CT B. S. (1932), M. S. (1934), ScD. (1936), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Mueller produced one of the first electronic analog computers while doing his Sc. D. thesis. He also developed time vector analysis of airplane dynamics at that time. He invented the Microsyn transducer, used in servomechanism systems.
Mulder, Jan A. (Bob) 1943-, b. The Hague, The Netherlands. MSc. Aero. (1968), Ph. D. (1986), Delft U., a student of Professor Otto Gerlach. Dr. Mulder is head of the division of Control and Simulation, Aerospace Engineering, Delft U. of Technology and an active captain on the Boeing B-757. His current research interests are in intelligent flight control and dynamic flight-test techniques.
Neumark, Stefan 1897-1967, b. Lodz, Poland. Dipl. Ing. and Sc. D., Tech. U. of Warsaw. Dr. Neumark was a most versatile engineer. In stability and control, he was noted for the atmospheric density change effect on the phugoid mode and for the theory of airplane stability under constraints. He also contributed to the theories of dynamic stability with rudder free and of gust effects on automatic control.
Nguyen, Luat T. 1947-, b. Vietnam. B. S. (1968), M. S. (1970), E. A.A. (1970), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Nguyen is a NASA expert on aircraft flight dynamics at high angles of attack. He has contributed to control system design for enhanced maneuverability and departure resistance.
Osder, Stephen 1925-, b. New York, NY. B. E.E. (1946), City Coll. of New York, M. S. (1951), Johns Hopkins U. He pioneered in the design of digital flight control, fly-by-wire systems, and redundancy management. He was Director of R and D at Sperry and Chief Scientist, Flight Controlsand Avionicsat McDonnell DouglasHelicopters. Hisflight control design experience included the QF-104 drone, MD-80, DC-10, NASA CV-990, AH-64 helicopter, various reentry bodies, NASA STOLAND and Space Shuttle Autoland, and recently the Boeing Canard Rotor Wing aircraft.
Perkins, Courtland D. 1912-, b. Philadelphia, PA. B. S. (1935), Swarthmore Coll., M. S. (1941), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Perkins helped launch the stability and control function at Wright Field in World War II. He wrote the stability and control portion of the important text Airplane Performance, Stability and Control. He taught the subject at Princeton University and later became Chief Scientist of the U. S. Air Force.
Phillips, W. Hewitt 1919-, b. Port Sunlight, Merseyside. S. B. (1939), S. M. (1940), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Phillips was a well-known model aircraft builder before joining NACA in 1940. His achievements in stability and control are many, but they are perhaps topped by his discovery of the roll or inertia-coupling phenonemon in 1947. Phillips also made important theoretical contributions to the design of spring tabs, the landing approach problem, gust alleviation, and pilot-airplane interactions that cause instability.
Pinsker, Werner J. G. 1918—, b. Mannheim, Germany. BEUTH (1939), Berlin College. Pinsker was the preeminent expert in inertial coupling at the British Royal Aircraft Establishment. He also contributed to the theories of landing large airplanes and of nose – slice departures. As a consultant, he helped solve lateral-directional problems of the multinational Tornado airplane.
Poisson-Quinton, Phillipe 1919—, b. Loches, France. La Sorbonne, ENSAE (1945). He was a professor/lecturer on aerodynamics, flying qualities, and control systems and a visiting professor at Princeton U. in 1975. At ONERA, he initiated transonic research on flying qualities and on optimized shapes for aircraft from V/STOL to hypersonic types. He delivered the 1967 AIAA Wright Brothers Lecture and was a member of the AGARD Flight Mechanics Panel.
Reid, Lloyd D. 1942-, b. North Bay, Canada. B. A.Sc. (1964), M. A.Sc. (1965), Ph. D. (1969), U. of Toronto. He is Associate Director of the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies. He is co-author of two standard stability and control textbooks. Dr. Reid’s research contributions include the study of aircraft response to the planetary boundary layer and the development and operation of a facility for flight simulation of the effects on stability and control of pilot-aircraft interactions.
Relf, Ernest Frederick 1888-1970, b. Beckenham, Kent. A. R.C. Sc. Relf combined mastery of aerodynamic theory with extraordinary talents as an experimentalist. He devised methods for the testing of autorating wings, yawed propellers, and apparent mass. In 1922, he built a small, powerful electric motor for use in powered wind-tunnel models.
Ribner, Herbert S. 1913-, b. Seattle, WA. B. S. (1935), Calif. Inst. of Tech., M. S. and Ph. D. (1937, 1939), Washington U. Dr. Ribner’s contributions to stability and control are in propeller and slipstream theory and in gust response. While at NACA, he solved the problem of the forces on yawed propellers, an important factor in static stability.
Rodden, William P. 1927-, b. San Francisco, CA. B. S. (1947), M. S. (1948), U. of Calif., Ph. D. (1958), U. of Calif, at Los Angeles. Dr. Rodden made important stability and control contributions as a co-developer of the Doublet Lattice method for oscillating lifting surfaces and of the first correct equations of motion for quasi-steady aircraft utilizing restrained aeroelastic derivatives. He is a co-author of the MSC/NASTRAN Aeroelastic Analysis User’s Guide.
Root, L. Eugene 1911-1992, b. Lewiston, ID. B. S., U. of the Pacific, M. S., Cal. Inst. of Tech. As chief of aerodynamics at the El Segundo plant of the Douglas Aircraft Company, Root led the team that developed in a systematic way excellent flying qualities for the U. S. Navy SBD Dauntless and AD Skyraider aircraft. Root went on to become one of the founders of the RAND Corporation and later president of the Lockheed Missile and Space Company.
Roskam, Jan 1930-, b. The Hague, The Netherlands. M. S.A. E. (1964), Delft U. of Technology, Ph. D. (1965), U. of Washington. Dr. Roskam worked for Cessna (1957-1959) and Boeing (1959-1967) on a variety of airplane projects. He is a major stability and control influence through his teaching at the University of Kansas, his consulting work, and his papers and textbooks.
Ross, A. Jean 1931-, b. Sussex, U. K. B. Sc. (1953), Ph. D. (1956), U. of Southampton. At the RAE and DERA, Farnborough, Ross specialized in modeling and analysis of aircraft responses to nonlinear dynamics and aerodynamic effects. She contributed to wing rock theory and to model testing of spin prevention and maneuver limitation systems. She participated in experimental wind-tunnel and free-flight work, culminating in the active control of forebody vortices.
Schairer, George S. 1913—, b. Pittsburgh, PA. B. S. (1934), Swarthmore Coll., M. S. (1935), Mass. Inst. of Tech. During Schairer’s long career at the Boeing Company, he was responsible for the stability and control designs of many of their airplanes. He redesigned the Stratoliner vertical tail to include one of the first dorsal fins and was responsible for sweeping the B-47’s wing. He became Boeing’s Corporate Vice President for Research.
Shaw, David E. 1932-, b. Bradford, U. K. B. Sc. Aeronautics (1954), Queen Mary Coll., London. He worked in all areas of aerodynamics at AV Roe Weapons Division and at BAe Warton. Shaw’s career highlights were clearance of the Lightning for rapid rolling, Tornado wing design, and Aerodynamics Team Leader for the Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP), from design to full-flight clearance.
Smith, Terry D. 1947-, b. Norwich, U. K. B. Sc. Eng. (1968), Imperial Coll., London. As a flight-test engineer specializing in flight controls, he was deeply involved in stability and control testing and flight control system development on the Jaguar, Tornado, and Eurofighter Typhoon. He led the flight-test teams for both the fly-by-wire Jaguar and the Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP) digital flight control systems.
Soule, Hartley A. 1904-, b. New York, NY. B. S.Ae. (1927), New York U. Soule started at NACA in 1927. He pioneered in spin research and made the first comprehensive measurements of airplane flying qualities. He was a co-inventor of the NACA Stability Wind Tunnel. Soule wrote a set of flying qualities requirements that eventually led to civil standards and military specifications.
Stengel, Robert F. 1938-, b. East Orange, NJ. S. B. (1960), Mass. Inst. of Tech., M. S.E. (1965), M. A. (1966), Ph. D. (1968), Princeton U. At the Draper Laboratory, Stengel followed airplane flying qualities principles in designing the manual attitude-control system for the Project Apollo Lunar Module. At Princeton, he converted the Navion variable-stability research airplane to digital control and conducted flying qualities and control system research.
Szalai, Kenneth J. 1942-, b. Milwaukee, WI. B. S.E. E. (1964), U. of Wisconsin, M. S.M. E. (1970), U. of Southern California. Mr. Szalai was principal investigator for the NASA Dryden F-8 Digital Fly-by-Wire program, the first of its type. He led the development of the U. S.-Russian Tu-144 supersonic flying laboratory. As director of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, he supervised research in thrust vectoring, high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics, and advanced flight controls. The X-29, X-31, X-36, and X-38 experimental programs were under his direction.
Thomas, H. H. B. M. (Beaumont) 1917-2000, b. Llanelli, U. K. B. Sc. (1939), D. Sc. (1980), U. ofWales, OBE 1979. In the Aerodynamics Department of the RAE, Farnborough, his expertise was in stability and control at the edges of the flight envelope. He contributed to control surface aerodynamics during World War II and to the dynamic stability of slender aircraft during the basic research that led to the Concorde. He also contributed to spin entry and recovery testing and analysis.
Toll, Thomas A. 1914—, b. Bridgewater, SD. B. S. (1941), U. of Calif. Toll made a wide range of stability and control contributions, including control surface aerodynamic balance, swept wings, and variable geometry. He is perhaps best known for two valuable summary reports, on lateral control research and on the supersonic transport.
Tonon, Aldo 1957—, b. Caracas, Venezuela. Politecnico ofTurin (1982). At Alenia ofTurin (formerly Aeritalia), Tonon’s major activity was in combat aircraft controls development. He was on the AMX program and then on the Eurofighter 2000 control law design, starting with the EAP technology demonstrator.
Wanner, Jean-Claude L. 1930—, b. Brest, France. Ing. (1950), Ecole Polytechnique, Ing. (1955), ENSAE. Dr. Wanner’s career in airplane stability and control includes serving as a military pilot, flight test engineer, and as professor in a number of institutions, including the ENSAE. He is author of the French text Mecanique du Vol. He pioneered in using computer methods in the teaching of stability and control.
Washizu, Kyuichiro 1921-1981, b. Ichinomiya, Aichi, Japan. B. Eng. (1942), Imperial U. of Tokyo, Dr. Eng. (1957), U. of Tokyo. Dr. Washizu’s important contribution to airplane stability and control was to train a generation of Japanese engineers in the field, having spent time in the United States to study the educational system. He did research on human controllability limits and finite-element methods and is the principal author of the stability and control section in Japan’s Handbook of Aerospace Engineering (1974).
Weick, Fred E. 1899-1993, b. Chicago, IL. B. S. (1922), U. of Illinois. Weick was at NACA’s Langley Aeronautical Laboratory from 1925 until 1936, contributing to lateral control research. He developed the W-1 pusher airplane, incorporating important stability and control innovations. The W-1 was a two-control airplane that had limited up-elevator travel and a tricycle landing gear. He later became known as the designer of the Ercoupe, the first agricultural airplane, the Ag-1, and a series of Piper aircraft.
Westbrook, Charles B. 1918-2001, b. Port Jervis, NY. M. S. (1946), Mass. Inst. of Tech. Westbrook joined the USAF Flight Dynamics Laboratory in 1945 as head of stability and control. He oversaw the development of post-war flying qualities specifications and the USAF Stability and Control Handbook. Westbrook managed for the Air Force much flying qualities research, including work on variable-stability airplanes.
White, Roland J. 1910-2001, b. Missoula, MT. B. S. (1933), U. of Calif., M. S.M. E. (1934), M. S.A. E. (1935), Calif. Inst. of Tech. His long stability and control career started at Curtiss-Wright, St. Louis, where he incorporated a springy or “vee” tab to the C-46 Commando, adding to its allowable aft cg travel. White designed a mechanical yaw damper for the Boeing B-52 and made one of the first servo analyses of electronic yaw dampers, for the B-47.
Wykes, JohnH. 1925-1988. B. S. (1949), Mass. Inst. ofTech., M. S.,U. of So. Calif. Wykes was a leading stability, control, and aeroelastics engineer at the Rockwell International Aircraft Division from 1949 to 1986, where he contributed to the designs of the F-86, F-100, F-107, B-70, andB-1 airplanes. He joined Northrop in 1987 to work on their YF-23A airplane. In addition to innovative work on stability augmentation, he also was responsible for the design of the B-1 gust alleviation system.
Zimmerman, Charles H. 1907-1995, b. Olathe, KS. B. S. (1929), U. of Kansas, M. S.Ae. (1954), U. of Virginia. Zimmerman started at NACA in 1929. He produced the classical NACA dynamic longitudinal and lateral stability analyses in 1935 and 1937, complete with stability boundary design charts. This was a considerable accomplishment for those times and the main design source for dynamic stability for years afterwards. He was instrumental in developing the Langley 20-foot spin and free-flight tunnels.