With an increased demand in a pilot’s workload, it is important to understand the aircraft flight deck (i. e., cockpit) and the arrangement of systems. Readers must be aware of the nature of design features for the human-interface aspect, which can affect the aircraft weight, cost, and shape of the forward-fuselage-canopy area.
15.2.3 Systems Architecture
Aircraft subsystems consist of avionic, electrical, mechanical, hydraulic, and pneumatic systems. The extent of an aircraft’s weight and cost depends on the subsystem design philosophy. Automation and microprocessor-based data management have advanced to a wider operational capability without a corresponding increase in a pilot’s workload. In this way, readers can see an aircraft as a system and subsystems.
15.2.4 Military Aircraft Survivability Issues
Military aircraft design for combat survivability has been considered for some time, primarily as a consequence of potential damage occurring in combat. Crew-ejection capability is an integral part of survivability. In the last two decades, stealth technology – as a good survival measure – has advanced by minimizing an aircraft’s signature. Electronic defense and countermeasures are other ways to thwart retaliation and increase survivability.
15.2.5 Emerging Scenarios
New topics are gaining importance and must be considered by the next generation of engineers. The emerging scenarios affecting civil aviation result from acts of terrorism in recent years. Aircraft design must include damage limitation from an explosion in the cargo compartments and containment of terrorist activities within the cabin. Also, damage incurred from runway debris demands a new perspective on an old problem (i. e., the Concorde crash case). With greatly increased numbers of passengers crossing international boundaries, general health care and contagious infections are becoming important issues.