the fundamentals of aerodynamic analysis
This textbook presents the fundamentals of aerodynamic analysis. Major emphasis is on inviscid flows whenever this simplification is appropriate, but viscous effects also are discussed in more detail than is usually found in a textbook at this level. There is continual attention to practical applications of the material. For example, the concluding chapter demonstrates how aerodynamic analysis can be used to predict and improve the performance of flight vehicles. The material is suitable for a semester course on aerodynamics or fluid mechanics at the junior/ senior undergraduate level and for first-year graduate students. It is assumed that the student has a sound background in calculus, vector analysis, mechanics, and basic thermodynamics and physics. Access to a digital computer is required and an understanding of computer programming is desirable but not necessary. Computational methods are introduced as required to solve complex problems that cannot be handled analytically.
The objective of this textbook is to present in a clear and orderly manner the basic concepts underlying aerodynamic-prediction methodology. The ultimate goal is for the student to be able to use confidently various solution methods in the analysis of practical problems of current and future interest. Today, it is important for the student to master the basics because technology is advancing at such a rate that a more directed or specific approach often is rapidly outdated. In this book, the basic concepts are linked closely to physical principles so that they may be understood and retained and the limits of applicability of the concepts can be appreciated. Numerous example problems stress solution methods and the order of magnitude of key parameters. A comprehensive set of problems for home study is included at the end of each chapter.
Physical insights are developed primarily by constructing analytical solutions to important aerodynamics problems. In doing this, we follow the example set by Theodore von Karman and we subscribe to Dr. Kuchemann’s concept of “ingenious abstractions and approximations.” However, after graduation, the student in the workplace will encounter many numerical-analysis techniques and solutions. Thus, the textbook introduces the fundamentals of modern numerical methods (as they are used in aerodynamics and fluid mechanics) as well. Physical understanding plays a valuable role in computational analysis because it provides an important check on the expected ranges of magnitude of numerical solutions that are generated by these techniques.
A feature of this textbook is a companion Web site (www. cambridge. org/flandro) that contains numerical-analysis codes of three types: (1) codes for performing routine algebraic calculations for evaluating atmospheric properties or compressible flow properties, which are often found only in tables or charts; (2) menu-driven codes that allow the student to observe the effects of parametric variations on solutions that are developed in the text; and (3) numerical- analysis codes for complex flow problems. The latter codes arise when solving linear problems using panel methods or nonlinear problems using finite-difference methods. Sample
applications of these codes are presented as needed to illustrate their use in addressing realistic aerodynamics problems.
The authors express their gratitude to members of the aerodynamics faculties at Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT) and the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) for many helpful discussions during the writing of this textbook. In addition, Professors Jagoda (GIT) and Collins (UTSI) kindly used draft copies of certain chapters in their classes to provide valuable feedback. We are indebted to Professors Harper and Hubbartt of GIT for allowing the use of materials developed in their classroom notes. Finally, the first two authors thank their teachers and research advisors for insight into the inner workings of fluid mechanics and aerodynamics attained duri ng their graduate studies in aeronautics at the California Institute of Technology. Giants such as Clark Millikan, Hans Liepmann, Lester Lees, Frank Marble, and Anatol Roshko deserve special mention for their influence on our understanding of this subject.
The three authors of this book represent more than 90 years of teaching and practical experience in aeronautics and associated disciplines. We wish you success in your study of aerodynamics and hope that it is as fulfilling to you as it has been to us.
Gary A. Flandro Howard M. McMahon Robert L. Roach