FUDGE FACTOR/ACCURACY DETERMINATION
The uncertainty bounds for parameter estimates obtained from the CramerRao bounds/OEM are multiplied with a fudge factor to reflect the uncertainty correctly. This is because when the OEM (which does not handle the process noise) is used on flight data, which are often affected by the process noise (like atmospheric turbulence), the uncertainty bounds do not correctly reflect the effect of this noise on the uncertainty of the estimates. And hence a fudge factor of about 3 to 5 can be used in practice.























This number has been arrived at (on the average) by performing flight simulations – based parameterestimation exercises for a fighter aircraft for longitudinal and
lateraldirectional maneuvers and using the formula FF = Jn sa™plinf frequenC^—.
° V (2 bandwidth of residuals)
C10 GENETIC ALGORITHMS
Genetic algorithms are heuristic/directed search methods and computational models of adaptation and evolution based on the natural selection strategy of evolution of biological species. The search for beneficial adaptations to a continually changing environment in nature (i. e., evolution) is fostered by the cumulative evolutionary knowledge that each species possesses of its forebears. This knowledge, which is encoded in the chromosomes of each member of a species, is passed from one generation to the next by a wellknown mating process wherein the chromosomes of ‘‘parents’’ produce ‘‘offspring.’’ Thus, genetic algorithms mimic and exploit the genetic dynamics underlying natural evolution to search for optimal and global solutions of general combinatorial optimization problems. The applications are the traveling salesman problem, VLSI circuit layout, gas pipeline control, the parametric design of an aircraft, learning in neural nets, models of international security, strategy formulation, and parameter estimation.
[1] dL
Ix dp
[3] Using a 4DOF lateraldirectional model, find the eigenvalues for spiral, roll, and DR mode, and (3) determine the roots using DR approximation. Compare the results with those obtained in (2) and comment.
5.6 How would you get the flight path rate from acceleration and subsequently the body rate?
5.7 Will large or small changes occur in the airspeed in the SP transient mode?
5.8 What is the main distinction between SP and phugoid mode characteristic from the motion of the aircraft and the interplay of the forces and moments?
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