Category III: Management-Driven Design Considerations

Design for Six Sigma: This is an integrated approach to design with the key issue of reducing the scope for mistakes and inefficiencies – that is, make a product right the first time to prevent the waste of company resources (see Section 17.5). A measure of its success is reflected in the final cost of a prod­uct; therefore, an estimation method indicates at what cost (i. e., at what effi­ciency) the Six Sigma approach is working.

Designfor Cost/Design to Cost: This is the classical question of Design to Cost (DTC) or Design for Cost (DFC) or a combination of both. The tendency of management to emphasize DTC through a “lean” organizational setup may be counterproductive if it is carried to the extreme application.

Design for Training and Evaluation: This is an area that currently is not under strong consideration at the conceptual design stage. Aircraft DOC estimation does not include the cost of T&E. Design considerations including common­ality and modular concepts could reduce T&E costs and, therefore, must be addressed in an early stage.

Design for Logistic Support: This is an operational aspect with second-order consideration for civil aircraft design. The existing support system addresses most of the logistic details without infringing on any major changes required in aircraft design, unless a special situation arises. Early input from operators for any design consideration helps control costs.

Design for Ground-Based Resources: This also may be deemed a lower – order consideration for civil aircraft design at the conceptual design stage, unless special-purpose equipment is required. In general, ground-based sup­port resources are becoming standardized and can be shared by a large fleet, thereby distributing the operation costs at a lower priority in the conceptual design stage.

Design for Special Equipment: This is more meaningful in military air­craft applications. If any special-purpose equipment must be introduced for ground-based serviceability, then a cost trade-off study at the conceptual design stage is beneficial.

Separate minimization of individual costs through the separate design considera­tions listed previously may prove counterproductive by preventing the overall min­imization of ownership cost. In a holistic overview, this chapter introduces the term Design for Customer to unify the individual considerations in the early stages of design evolution in order to offer the best value of the product by satisfying require­ments, specifications, and integrity to lower the LCC (or DOC). It is a front-loaded investment for eventual savings in LCC (or DOC).