Consider the normal shock wave sketched in Figure 8.3. Region 1 is a uniform flow upstream of the shock, and region 2 is a different uniform flow downstream of the shock. The pressure, density, temperature, Mach number, velocity, total pressure, total enthalpy, total temperature, and entropy in region 1 are p, p, 7), M, u, po,, ho, і, 7’o. i, and ^|, respectively. The corresponding variables in region 2 are denoted by p2, Pi, T2, M2, u2, po,2, ho,2, ?o,2, and s2. (Note that we are denoting the magnitude of the flow velocity by и rather than V; reasons for this will become obvious as we progress.) The problem of the normal shock wave is simply stated as follows: given the flow properties upstream of the wave (p, Tu M, etc.), calculate the flow properties (p2, T2, M2, etc.) downstream of the wave. Let us proceed.
Consider the rectangular control volume abed given by the dashed line in Figure 8.3. The shock wave is inside the control volume, as shown. Side ab is the edge view of the left face of the control volume; this left face is perpendicular to the flow, and its area is A. Side cd is the edge view of the right face of the control volume; this right face is also perpendicular to the flow, and its area is Л. We apply the integral form of conservation equations to this control volume. In the process, we observe three important physical facts about the flow given in Figure 8.3:
1. The flow is steady, that is, 9/9f = 0.
2. The flow is adiabatic, that is, q = 0. We are not adding or taking away heat from the control volume (we are not heating the shock wave with a Bunsen burner, for
Figure 8*3 Sketch of a normal wave.
example). The temperature increases across the shock wave, not because heat is being added, but rather, because kinetic energy is converted to internal energy across the shock wave.
3. There are no viscous effects on the sides of the control volume. The shock wave itself is a thin region of extremely high velocity and temperature gradients; hence, friction and thermal conduction play an important role on the flow structure inside the wave. However, the wave itself is buried inside the control volume, and with the integral form of the conservation equations, we are not concerned about the details of what goes on inside the control volume.
4. There are no body forces; f = 0.
Consider the continuity equation in the form of Equation (7.39). For the conditions described above, Equation (7.39) becomes
To evaluate Equation (8.1) over the face ab, note that V is pointing into the control volume whereas dS by definition is pointing out of the control volume, in the opposite direction of V; hence, V • dS is negative. Moreover, p and |V| are uniform over the face ab and equal to p and u, respectively. Hence, the contribution of face ab to the surface integral in Equation (8.1) is simply — pUA. Over the right face cd both V and dS are in the same direction, and hence V • dS is positive. Moreover, p and | V| are uniform over the face cd and equal to pn and «2, respectively. Thus, the contribution of face cd to the surface integral is P2U2A. On sides be and ad, V and dS are always perpendicular; hence, V • dS = 0, and these sides make no contribution to the surface
integral. Hence, for the control volume shown in Figure 8.3, Equation (8.1) becomes
Pi Mi A + p2u2A = 0
Equation (8.2) is the continuity equation for normal shock waves.
Consider the momentum equation in the form of Equation (7.41). For the flow we are treating here, Equation (7.41) becomes
Equation (8.3) is a vector equation. Note that in Figure 8.3, the flow is moving only in one direction (i. e., in the x direction). Hence, we need to consider only the scalar x component of Equation (8.3), which is
In Equation (8.4), (p dS)x is the x component of the vector (p dS). Note that over the face ab, dS points to the left (i. e., in the negative x direction). Hence, (p dS)x is negative over face ab. By similar reasoning, (p dS)x is positive over the face cd. Again noting that all the flow variables are uniform over the faces ab and cd, the surface integrals in Equation (8.4) become
P(-uA)u + p2(u2A)u2 — —(—pA + p2A)
Equation (8.6) is the momentum equation for normal shock waves.
Consider the energy equation in the form of Equation (7.43). For steady, adiabatic, inviscid flow with no body forces, this equation becomes
Evaluating Equation (8.7) for the control surface shown in Figure 8.3, we have
Rearranging, we obtain
Dividing by Equation (8.2), that is, dividing the left-hand side of Equation (8.8) by PU and the right-hand side by P2U2, we have
From the definition of enthalpy, h = e + pv = e + р/р. Hence, Equation (8.9) becomes
Equation (8.10) is the energy equation for normal shock waves. Equation (8.10) should come as no surprise; the flow through a shock wave is adiabatic, and we derived in Section 7.5 the fact that for a steady, adiabatic flow, ho = h + Vі/2 = const. Equation (8.10) simply states that ho (hence, for a calorically perfect gas Го) is constant across the shock wave. Therefore, Equation (8.10) is consistent with the general results obtained in Section 7.5.
Repeating the above results for clarity, the basic normal shock equations are
Examine these equations closely. Recall from Figure 8.3 that all conditions upstream of the wave, pi, «і, Pi, etc., are known. Thus, the above equations are a system of three algebraic equations in four unknowns, p2, U2, P2, and /12- However, if we add the following thermodynamic relations
Enthalpy: h2 = cpT2
Equation of state: p2 — P2RT2
we have five equations for five unknowns, namely, P2, U2, P2, ^2, and T2. In Section 8.6, we explicitly solve these equations for the unknown quantities behind the shock. However, rather than going directly to that solution, we first take three side trips as shown in the road map in Figure 8.2. These side trips involve discussions of the speed of sound (Section 8.3), alternate forms of the energy equation (Section 8.4), and compressibility (Section 8.5)—all of which are necessary for a viable discussion of shock-wave properties in Section 8.6.
Finally, we note that Equations (8.2), (8.6), and (8.10) are not limited to normal shock waves; they describe the changes that take place in any steady, adiabatic, inviscid flow where only one direction is involved. That is, in Figure 8.3, the flow is in the x direction only. This type of flow, where the flow-field variables are functions of x only [ p = p(x), и = u(x), etc.], is defined as one-dimensional flow. Thus, Equations (8.2), (8.6), and (8.10) are governing equations for one-dimensional, steady, adiabatic, inviscid flow.